The Effects of Framing in Gamification: A Study of Failure


In human-computer interaction research, interest in the unique experiences that digital games offer is increasing. One characteristic of digital games is the failure of players, which is arguably the core of what makes games interesting and fun. Gamification seems to transfer some of the motivational effects of digital games in non-entertainment contexts by reframing an activity. Hence, this thesis sheds light on the psychological effects of failing in different contexts to gain a better understanding of the effects of games and gamified applications. Two mixed-design experiments (N1 = 148, N2 = 63) were conducted. The first examined the effect of failing in a task, game, test, and task with meaning condition. Participants in this experiment were compensated for participation. In the second experiment, the framing conditions task, game, and test were examined, and no compensation was given for participation. Results showed that framing an activity as a game did not reduce the negative effect of failing on intrinsic motivation. However, having additional information about the task seemed to buffer the negative effect of failing on positive affect in the first experiment. Furthermore, perceived value and particularly change in autonomy was found to predict playing of additional rounds after the study.

Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden